top of page

How to Manage a Poultry Farm


It has been clinically proven that man requires a balanced diet in order to survive. One of the essential requirements for this balanced diet is protein, which is supplied by meat. Apart from red meat – beef etc., the other class of meat is that of birds. Within this family of birds, you have broilers, layers, ducks, quails and turkeys. These not only provide meat but eggs as well. It is as a result of their nutritional and economic importance that many farmers go into their production. Experience has also taught that they are very easy and cheap to maintain; hence, small-scale farmers can also keep them.

This booklet is intended to serve as a manual for small-scale poultry farming in the tropics. Although poultry is raised all around the world under very different circumstances, the main objective is always the same: maximum production with as few costs as possible.

Two main forms of small-scale poultry farming can be distinguished.

  1. Subsistence poultry farming is the keeping of a small amount of poultry for home consumption.

  2. Commercial poultry farming which can be a source of extra income.

For a successful business, a market for eggs and poultry products and a steady supply of low-cost feed must be available and guaranteed. If poultry is only kept for personal consumption, costs should be kept to a minimum while still ensuring a supply of eggs and meat. Use of locally available resources and material is important.

This manual can be of use to both beginning and experienced poultry farmers when confronted with problems which involves poultry production.  The manual focuses on keeping layers and broiler, but some attention will be given to the keeping of cockerels as they also need to be fattened. poultry production and management practices for maximum output.




Brooding has to do with creating enabling environment for young birds. Naturally, one of the general characteristics of birds is the ability of taking care of their young ones or for a considerable length of time during which they provide food and warmth for the upkeep of these young ones. In brooding, the young birds, which are often times in poultry environment, hatched artificial are provided with the same environment, which otherwise, they would have enjoyed, had their mother hatched them. This is the most important days in the life span of birds. It is the period between the first day and the end of the third week. Any mistake made at this stage may impact negatively on the birds in the latter days i.e. if they live up to that age.


The most vital thing for birds during their earliest period of their life is warmth. This account for reasons why hens cover their young with their wings. During brooding, care is taken to artificially provide the needed warmth. This provision will help them until they are used to the outside climate.


Like human beings, birds are susceptible to many diseases and parasites. Some of these can be prevented while others are facts of life. Unless these diseases are identified and prevented or controlled, they can cause huge losses. The pen, where the birds spend most of their life span should be completely free of diseases and parasites.


Free Range Poultry Farm




Before new batch of birds are brought in, the following precautions are to be taken:

  1. Remove all the equipment in the house and take them outside. Clean, wash and dry them using disinfectant and expose them to plenty of sunshine.

  2. Clean out the deep litter material and manure in the house.

  3. Clean, wash and disinfect the floor, wall and ceilings of the birds’ house. Leave it empty for two weeks to break any disease cycle.

  4. Spray disinfectant around the outside of the house.

  5. Use new and dry deep litter material (woodshavings) not treated with chemicals for each new batch of birds.

  6. Avoid the use of disinfectant on the floor of the house and on the feeders and drinkers when the birds are using them.

  7. Isolate sick birds (if any) from the rest of the birds.


Other management practices include:

  1. Maintain clean and fresh water supply

  2. Do not serve food stored for a very long time, nor exposed to other animals or moisture.

  3. Ensure there is good air circulation (ventilation) within the building.

  4. Prevent overcrowding in the pen by applying appropriate space guidelines.

  5. Litter Management

  6. Try to turn the litter every week with rake within the area you have drinkers. You can change now and again. If the litter is wet or dirty, they should be removed. The depth should be 10cm, but you can make it at least 5cm. Keep the poultry house dry as much as possible.

  7. Finally, when the birds are being taken out for sale or change of place, the litter should be removed.


Certain chicken breeds are best for laying eggs, the so-called layers. Other breeds are better suited as broiler chickens.  The latter type are usually heavier birds which grow quicker and tend to have more muscle.



  1. DAY OLD PRODUCTION: Production of day-old chicks is the most technical aspect of poultry business. It involves purchase of incubator, electric generator etc. But it is lucrative. Most of the hatchery operators have breeding stock for the supply of hatchable eggs.

  2. REPLACEMENT PULLET PRODUCTION: This is the collection of day-old chicks and rearing them to cage period at 14 weeks or point of lay at 18 weeks of age before they are sold.

  3. CULLED BIRDS: This involves the purchase of frozen chicken either broiler or old layer from the producers and resold to the final consumers.

  4. DRUGS AND VACCINES: It involves selling of drugs and vaccines to the farmers. Refrigerator and proper storage of vaccines should be considered very important.

  5. FEED INGRIDIENTS: This involves trading of raw materials such as the supply of maize, groundnut cake, fish meal etc. And ready-made feed to the farm directly or indirectly.

  6. FEED MILLING: Feed milling business is one of the essential backbones of poultry industry. Poultry cannot survive without feed. Grinders, mixers, conveyor, scale, trolleys and regular power supply are very important in this branch of poultry business.

  7. CONSULTANCY: This involves the services of experts in different areas of poultry business. Major consultants in poultry are the nutritionists and veterinarians.

  8. POULTRY EQUIPMENT: Cages of different capacity, drinkers and feeders, scales etc. are very important in poultry production. This branch has to do with the sale of poultry equipment.

Fresh Eggs

Fresh Organic Eggs



KACS can help you setup a profitable poultry production business. We offer the following services: pen construction, battery cage installation, supply of day-old chicks, point of lay, poultry feeders and drinkers, feed and other poultry farm equipment for a profitable poultry production enterprise. We deal on different breeds of poultry birds with good track records. We decide what type of structure is best for your land based on location and topography of the land. We can also help to manage your farm effectively for maximum production.

KACS is reliable and consistent in its approach towards achieving best poultry production and management practices for maximum output.

bottom of page